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St Francis Day - Catholic Christian / Blessing of the Animals – Christian, esp. Spanish Catholicism.

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Time: 
Thu, 04/10/2018 (All day)
Location: 
EVERYWHERE.

 4th October 

St Francis Day - Catholic Christian / Blessing of the Animals – Christian, esp. Spanish Catholicism.  

Christian recognition of service to people and appreciation of the natural world, as practiced by St Francis and the Franciscan Monastic Order which he founded. 

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On November 29, 1979, Pope John Paul II declared St. Francis the Patron Saint of Ecology. 

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_of_Assisi 

Saint Francis of Assisi (Italian: San Francesco d'Assisi; born Giovanni di Pietro di Bernardone, but nicknamed Francesco (a tribute to France) by his father; 1181/1182 – October 3, 1226) was an Italian Catholic friar and preacher.  He founded the men's Order of Friars Minor, the women’s Order of St. Clare, and the Third Order of Saint Francis for men and women not able to live the lives of itinerant preachers, followed by the early members of the Order of Friars Minor, or the monastic lives of the Poor Clares.  Francis is one of the most venerated religious figures in history. 

Francis' father was Pietro di Bernardone, a prosperous silk merchant.  Francis lived the high-spirited life typical of a wealthy young man, even fighting as a soldier for Assisi.  While going off to war in 1204, Francis had a vision that directed him back to Assisi, where he lost his taste for his worldly life.  On a pilgrimage to Rome, he joined the poor in begging at St. Peter's Basilica.  The experience moved him to live in poverty.  Francis returned home, began preaching on the streets, and soon gathered followers.  His Order was authorized by Pope Innocent III in 1210.  He then founded the Order of Poor Clares, which became an enclosed religious order for women, as well as the Order of Brothers and Sisters of Penance (commonly called the Third Order). 

In 1219, he went to Egypt in an attempt to convert the Sultan to put an end to the conflict of the Crusades.  By this point, the Franciscan Order had grown to such an extent that its primitive organizational structure was no longer sufficient.  He returned to Italy to organize the Order.  Once his community was authorized by the Pope, he withdrew increasingly from external affairs.  In 1223, Francis arranged for the first Christmas nativity scene.  In 1224, he received the stigmata, making him the first recorded person to bear the wounds of Christ's Passion.  He died during the evening hours of October 3, 1226, while listening to a reading he had requested of Psalm 142(141). 

On July 16, 1228, he was proclaimed a saint by Pope Gregory IX.  He is known as the patron saint of animals and the environment, and is one of the two patron saints of Italy (with Catherine of Siena).  It is customary for Catholic and Anglican churches to hold ceremonies blessing animals on his feast day of October 4.  He is also known for his love of the Eucharist, his sorrow during the Stations of the Cross, and for the creation of the Christmas crèche or Nativity Scene. 

Early life. 

Francis of Assisi was one of seven children born in late 1181 or early 1182 to Pietro and his wife Pica de Bourlemont, about whom little is known except that she was a noblewoman originally from Provence.  Pietro was in France on business when Francis was born in Assisi, and Pica had him baptized as Giovanni.  When his father returned to Assisi, he took to calling him Francesco (“the Frenchman”), possibly in honor of his commercial success and enthusiasm for all things French.  Since the child was renamed in infancy, the change can hardly have had anything to do with his aptitude for learning French, as some have thought.  As a youth, Francesco became a devotee of troubadours and was fascinated with all things Transalpine.  Although many hagiographers remark about his bright clothing, rich friends, and love of pleasures, his displays of disillusionment toward the world that surrounded him came fairly early in his life, as is shown in the “story of the beggar.” In this account, he was selling cloth and velvet in the marketplace on behalf of his father when a beggar came to him and asked for alms.  At the conclusion of his business deal, Francis abandoned his wares and ran after the beggar.  When he found him, Francis gave the man everything he had in his pockets.  His friends quickly chided and mocked him for his act of charity.  When he got home, his father scolded him in rage. 

In 1201, he joined a military expedition against Perugia and was taken as a prisoner at Collestrada, spending a year as a captive.  It is possible that his spiritual conversion was a gradual process rooted in this experience.  Upon his return to Assisi in 1203, Francis returned to his carefree life.  In 1204, a serious illness led him to a spiritual crisis.  In 1205, Francis left for Apulia to enlist in the army of Walter III, Count of Brienne.  A strange vision made him return to Assisi, deepening his ecclesiastical awakening. 

According to the hagiographic legend, thereafter he began to avoid the sports and the feasts of his former companions.  In response, they asked him laughingly whether he was thinking of marrying, to which he answered, “yes, a fairer bride than any of you have ever seen,” meaning his “Lady Poverty”.  He spent much time in lonely places, asking God for enlightenment.  By degrees he took to nursing lepers, the most repulsive victims in the lazar houses near Assisi.  After a pilgrimage to Rome, where he joined the poor in begging at the doors of the churches, he said he had a mystical vision of Jesus Christ in the country chapel of San Damiano, just outside of Assisi, in which the Icon of Christ Crucified said to him, “Francis, Francis, go and repair My house which, as you can see, is falling into ruins.” He took this to mean the ruined church in which he was presently praying, and so he sold some cloth from his father's store to assist the priest there for this purpose. 

His father, Pietro, highly indignant, attempted to change his mind, first with threats and then with beatings.  In the midst of legal proceedings before the Bishop of Assisi, Francis renounced his father and his patrimony, laying aside even the garments he had received from him in front of the public.  For the next couple of months he lived as a beggar in the region of Assisi.  Returning to the countryside around the town for two years, he embraced the life of a penitent, during which he restored several ruined chapels in the countryside around Assisi, among them the Porziuncola, the little chapel of St. Mary of the Angels just outside the town, which later became his favorite abode. 

Founding of the Franciscan Orders. 

Francis considered his stigmata part of the imitation of ChriSt. Cigoli, 1699 

At the end of this period (on February 24, 1209, according to Jordan of Giano), Francis heard a sermon that changed his life forever.  The sermon was about Matthew 10:9, in which Christ tells his followers they should go forth and proclaim that the Kingdom of Heaven was upon them, that they should take no money with them, nor even a walking stick or shoes for the road.  Francis was inspired to devote himself to a life of poverty. 

Clad in a rough garment, barefoot, and, after the Gospel precept, without staff or scrip, he began to preach repentance.  He was soon joined by his first follower, a prominent fellow townsman, the jurist Bernardo di Quintavalle, who contributed all that he had to the work.  Within a year Francis had eleven followers.  Francis chose never to be ordained a priest, and the community lived as “lesser brothers,” fratres minores in Latin.  The brothers lived a simple life in the deserted lazar house of Rivo Torto near Assisi; but they spent much of their time wandering through the mountainous districts of Umbria, always cheerful and full of songs, yet making a deep impression upon their hearers by their earnest exhortations. 

Francis' preaching to ordinary people was unusual since he had no license to do so.  In 1209 he composed a simple rule for his followers (“friars”), the Regula primitiva or “Primitive Rule”, which came from verses in the Bible. 

The rule was “To follow the teachings of our Lord Jesus Christ and to walk in his footsteps.” In 1209, Francis led his first eleven followers to Rome to seek permission from Pope Innocent III to found a new religious Order.  Upon entry to Rome, the brothers encountered Bishop Guido of Assisi, who had in his company Giovanni di San Paolo, the Cardinal Bishop of Sabina.  The Cardinal, who was the confessor of Pope Innocent III, was immediately sympathetic to Francis and agreed to represent Francis to the pope.  Reluctantly, Pope Innocent agreed to meet with Francis and the brothers the next day.  After several days, the pope agreed to admit the group informally, adding that when God increased the group in grace and number, they could return for an official admittance.  The group was tonsured. 

This was important in part because it recognized Church authority and prevented his following from possible accusations of heresy, as had happened to the Waldensians decades earlier.  Though Pope Innocent initially had his doubts, following a dream in which he saw Francis holding up the Basilica of St. John Lateran (the cathedral of Rome, thus the 'home church' of all Christendom), he decided to endorse Francis' Order.  This occurred, according to tradition, on April 16, 1210, and constituted the official founding of the Franciscan Order.  The group, then the “Lesser Brothers” (Order of Friars Minor also known as the Franciscan Order), preached on the streets and had no possessions.  They were centered in the Porziuncola and preached first in Umbria, before expanding throughout Italy. 

From then on, the new Order grew quickly with new vocations.  Hearing Francis preaching in the church of San Rufino in Assisi in 1211, the young noblewoman Clare of Assisi became deeply touched by his message and realized her calling.  Her cousin Rufino, the only male member of the family in their generation, was also attracted to the new Order (which he joined).  On the night of Palm Sunday, March 28, 1212, Clare clandestinely left her family's palace.  Francis received her at the Porziuncola and thereby established the Order of Poor Ladies, later called Poor Clares.  This was an Order for women, and he gave Clare a religious habit, or garment, similar to his own, before lodging her and a few female companions in a nearby monastery of Benedictine nuns.  Later he transferred them to San Damiano.  There they were joined by many other women of Assisi.  For those who could not leave their homes, he later formed the Third Order of Brothers and Sisters of Penance, a fraternity composed of either laity or clergy whose members neither withdrew from the world nor took religious vows.  Instead, they observed the principles of Franciscan life in their daily lives.  Before long, this Third Order grew beyond Italy. 

Travels. 

Determined to bring the Gospel to all God's creatures, Francis sought on several occasions to take his message out of Italy.  In the late spring of 1212, he set out for Jerusalem, but he was shipwrecked by a storm on the Dalmatian coast, forcing him to return to Italy.  On May 8, 1213, he was given the use of the mountain of La Verna (Alverna) as a gift from Count Orlando di Chiusi, who described it as “eminently suitable for whoever wishes to do penance in a place remote from mankind.” The mountain would become one of his favourite retreats for prayer. 

In the same year, Francis sailed for Morocco, but this time an illness forced him to break off his journey in Spain.  Back in Assisi, several noblemen (among them Tommaso da Celano, who would later write the biography of St. Francis) and some well-educated men joined his Order.  In 1215, Francis went again to Rome for the Fourth Lateran Council.  During this time, he probably met a canon, Dominic de Guzman (later to be Saint Dominic, the founder of the Friars Preachers, another Catholic religious order).  In 1217, he offered to go to France.  Cardinal Ugolino of Segni (the future Pope Gregory IX), an early and important supporter of Francis, advised him against this and said that he was still needed in Italy. 

In 1219, accompanied by another friar and hoping to convert the Sultan of Egypt or win martyrdom in the attempt, Francis went to Egypt where a Crusader army had been encamped for over a year besieging the walled city of Damietta two miles (3.2 km) upstream from the mouth of one of the main channels of the Nile. 

The Sultan, al-Kamil, a nephew of Saladin, had succeeded his father as Sultan of Egypt in 1218 and was encamped upstream of Damietta, unable to relieve it.  A bloody and futile attack on the city was launched by the Christians on August 29, 1219, following which both sides agreed to a ceasefire which lasted four weeks.  It was most probably during this interlude that Francis and his companion crossed the Saracen lines and were brought before the Sultan, remaining in his camp for a few days. 

The visit is reported in contemporary Crusader sources and in the earliest biographies of Francis, but they give no information about what transpired during the encounter beyond noting that the Sultan received Francis graciously and that Francis preached to the Saracens without effect, returning unharmed to the Crusader camp.  No contemporary Arab source mentions the visit.  One detail, added by Bonaventure in the official life of Francis (written forty years after the event), has Francis offering to challenge the Sultan's “priests” to trial-by-fire in order to prove the veracity of the Christian Gospel. 

According to some late sources, the Sultan gave Francis permission to visit the sacred places in the Holy Land and even to preach there.  All that can safely be asserted is that Francis and his companion left the Crusader camp for Acre, from where they embarked for Italy in the latter half of 1220.  Drawing on a 1267 sermon by Bonaventure, later sources report that the Sultan secretly converted or accepted a death-bed baptism as a result of the encounter with Francis.  The Franciscan Order has been present in the Holy Land almost uninterruptedly since 1217 when Brother Elias arrived at Acre.  It received concessions from the Mameluke Sultan in 1333 with regard to certain Holy Places in Jerusalem and Bethlehem, and (so far as concerns the Catholic Church) jurisdictional privileges from Pope Clement VI in 1342. 

By this time, the growing Order of friars was divided into provinces and groups were sent to France, Germany, Hungary, and Spain and to the EaSt. Upon receiving a report of the martyrdom of five brothers in Morocco, Francis returned to Italy via Venice.  Cardinal Ugolino di Conti was then nominated by the Pope as the protector of the Order.  Another reason for Francis' return to Italy was that the friars in Italy were causing problems. 

The Franciscan Order had grown at an unprecedented rate compared to prior religious orders, but its organizational sophistication had not kept up with this growth and had little more to govern it than Francis' example and simple rule.  To address this problem, Francis prepared a new and more detailed Rule, the “First Rule” or “Rule Without a Papal Bull” (Regula prima, Regula non bullata), which again asserted devotion to poverty and the apostolic life.  However, it also introduced greater institutional structure though this was never officially endorsed by the pope. 

On September 29, 1220, Francis handed over the governance of the Order to Brother Peter Catani at the Porziuncola, but Brother Peter died only five months later, on March 10, 1221, and was buried there.  When numerous miracles were attributed to the deceased brother, people started to flock to the Porziuncola, disturbing the daily life of the Franciscans.  Francis then prayed, asking Peter to stop the miracles and to obey in death as he had obeyed during his life. 

The reports of miracles ceased.  Brother Peter was succeeded by Brother Elias as Vicar of Francis.  Two years later, Francis modified the “First Rule”, creating the “Second Rule” or “Rule With a Bull”, which was approved by Pope Honorius III on November 29, 1223.  As the official Rule of the Order, it called on the friars “to observe the Holy Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ, living in obedience without anything of our own and in chastity”.  In addition, it set regulations for discipline, preaching, and entry into the Order.  Once the Rule was endorsed by the Pope, Francis withdrew increasingly from external affairs.  During 1221 and 1222, Francis crossed Italy, first as far south as Catania in Sicily and afterwards as far north as Bologna. 

While he was praying on the mountain of Verna, during a forty-day fast in preparation for Michaelmas (September 29), Francis is said to have had a vision on or about September 14, 1224, the Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross, as a result of which he received the stigmata.  Brother Leo, who had been with Francis at the time, left a clear and simple account of the event, the first definite account of the phenomenon of stigmata.  “Suddenly he saw a vision of a seraph, a six-winged angel on a cross.  This angel gave him the gift of the five wounds of Christ.” Suffering from these stigmata and from trachoma, Francis received care in several cities (Siena, Cortona, Nocera) to no avail.  In the end, he was brought back to a hut next to the Porziuncola.  Here, in the place where it all began, feeling the end approaching, he spent the last days of his life dictating his spiritual Testament.  He died on the evening of Saturday, October 3, 1226, singing Psalm 142 (141), “Voce mea ad Dominum”.  On July 16, 1228, he was pronounced a saint by Pope Gregory IX (the former cardinal Ugolino di Conti, friend of St. Francis and Cardinal Protector of the Order).  The next day, the Pope laid the foundation stone for the Basilica of Saint Francis in Assisi.  Francis was buried on May 25, 1230, under the Lower Basilica, but his tomb was soon hidden on orders of Brother Elias to protect it from Saracen invaders.  His exact burial place remained unknown until it was re-discovered in 1818.  Pasquale Belli then constructed for the remains a crypt in neo-classical style in the Lower Basilica.  It was refashioned between 1927 and 1930 into its present form by Ugo Tarchi, stripping the wall of its marble decorations.  In 1978, the remains of St. Francis were examined and confirmed by a commission of scholars appointed by Pope Paul VI, and put into a glass urn in the ancient stone tomb. 

Character and legacy. 

It has been argued that no one else in history was as dedicated as Francis to imitate the life, and carry out the work of Christ, in Christ’s own way.  This is important in understanding Francis' character and his affinity for the Eucharist and respect for the priests who carried out the sacrament. 

He and his followers celebrated and even venerated poverty.  Poverty was so central to his character that in his last written work, the Testament, he said that absolute personal and corporate poverty was the essential lifestyle for the members of his Order. 

He believed that nature itself was the mirror of God.  He called all creatures his “brothers” and “sisters,” and even preached to the birds and supposedly persuaded a wolf to stop attacking some locals if they agreed to feed the wolf.  In his “Canticle of the Creatures” (“Praises of Creatures” or “Canticle of the Sun”), he mentioned the “Brother Sun” and “Sister Moon,” the wind and water, and “Sister Death.” He referred to his chronic illnesses as his “sisters.” His deep sense of brotherhood under God embraced others, and he declared that “he considered himself no friend of Christ if he did not cherish those for whom Christ died.” 

Francis' visit to Egypt and attempted rapprochement with the Muslim world had far-reaching consequences, long past his own death, since after the fall of the Crusader Kingdom, it would be the Franciscans, of all Catholics, who would be allowed to stay on in the Holy Land and be recognized as “Custodians of the Holy Land” on behalf of the Catholic Church. 

At Greccio near Assisi, around 1220, Francis celebrated Christmas by setting up the first known presepio or crèche (Nativity scene).  His nativity imagery reflected the scene in traditional paintings.  He used real animals to create a living scene so that the worshipers could contemplate the birth of the child Jesus in a direct way, making use of the senses, especially sight.  Thomas of Celano, a biographer of Francis and Saint Bonaventure both, tell how he used only a straw-filled manger (feeding trough) set between a real ox and donkey.  According to Thomas, it was beautiful in its simplicity, with the manger acting as the altar for the Christmas Mass. 

Nature and the environment. 

Francis preached the teaching of the Catholic Church, that the world was created good and beautiful by God but suffers a need for redemption because of the primordial sin of man.  He preached to man and beast the universal ability and duty of all creatures to praise God (a common theme in the Psalms) and the duty of men to protect and enjoy nature as both the stewards of God's creation and as creatures ourselves.  On November 29, 1979, Pope John Paul II declared St. Francis the Patron Saint of Ecology.  Many of the stories that surround the life of St. Francis say that he had a great love for animals and the environment. 

Perhaps the most famous incident that illustrates the Saint's humility towards nature is recounted in the “Fioretti” (“Little Flowers”), a collection of legends and folklore that sprang up after the Saint's death.  It is said that, one day, while Francis was travelling with some companions, they happened upon a place in the road where birds filled the trees on either side.  Francis told his companions to “wait for me while I go to preach to my sisters the birds.” The birds surrounded him, intrigued by the power of his voice, and not one of them flew away.  He is often portrayed with a bird, typically in his hand. 

Another legend from the Fioretti tells that in the city of Gubbio, where Francis lived for some time, was a wolf “terrifying and ferocious, who devoured men as well as animals.” Francis had compassion upon the townsfolk, and so he went up into the hills to find the wolf.  Soon, fear of the animal had caused all his companions to flee, though the saint pressed on.  When he found the wolf, he made the sign of the cross and commanded the wolf to come to him and hurt no one.  Miraculously the wolf closed his jaws and lay down at the feet of St. Francis. 

“Brother Wolf, you do much harm in these parts and you have done great evil,” said Francis.  “All these people accuse you and curse you...But brother wolf, I would like to make peace between you and the people.” Then Francis led the wolf into the town, and surrounded by startled citizens made a pact between them and the wolf.  Because the wolf had “done evil out of hunger, the townsfolk were to feed the wolf regularly.  In return, the wolf would no longer prey upon them or their flocks.  In this manner Gubbio was freed from the menace of the predator.  Francis even made a pact on behalf of the town dogs, that they would not bother the wolf again.  Finally, to show the townspeople that they would not be harmed, Francis blessed the wolf. 

Then during the World Environment Day 1982, John Paul II said that St. Francis' love and care for creation was a challenge for contemporary Catholics and a reminder “not to behave like dissident predators where nature is concerned, but to assume responsibility for it, taking all care so that everything stays healthy and integrated, so as to offer a welcoming and friendly environment even to those who succeed us.” The same Pope wrote on the occasion of the World Day of Peace, January 1, 1990, the saint of Assisi “offers Christians an example of genuine and deep respect for the integrity of creation...” He went on to make the point that: “As a friend of the poor who was loved by God's creatures, Saint Francis invited all of creation – animals, plants, natural forces, even Brother Sun and Sister Moon – to give honor and praise to the Lord.  The poor man of Assisi gives us striking witness that when we are at peace with God we are better able to devote ourselves to building up that peace with all creation which is inseparable from peace among all peoples.” 

Pope John Paul II concluded that section of the document with these words, “It is my hope that the inspiration of Saint Francis will help us to keep ever alive a sense of 'fraternity' with all those good and beautiful things which Almighty God has created.” 

Feast day. 

Francis of Assisi Francisco de Zurbarán.  Saint Francis' feast day is observed on October 4.  The Evangelical Church in Germany, however, commemorates St. Francis' feast day on his death day, October 3. 

Saint Francis' feast day is observed on October 4.  A secondary feast in honor of the stigmata received by St. Francis, celebrated on September 17, was inserted in the General Roman Calendar in 1585 (later than the Tridentine Calendar) and suppressed in 1604, but was restored in 1615.  In the New Roman Missal of 1969, it was removed again from the General Calendar, as something of a duplication of the main feast on October 4, and left to the calendars of certain localities and of the Franciscan Order.  Wherever the traditional Roman Missal is used, however, the feast of the Stigmata remains in the General Calendar. 

On June 18, 1939, Pope Pius XII named Francis a joint Patron Saint of Italy along with Saint Catherine of Siena with the apostolic letter “Licet Commissa”.  Pope Pius also mentioned the two saints in the laudative discourse he pronounced on May 5, 1949, in the Church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva. 

St. Francis is honored in the Church of England, the Anglican Church of Canada, the Episcopal Church USA, the Old Catholic Churches, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, and other churches and religious communities on October 4.  The Evangelical Church in Germany, however, commemorates St. Francis' feast day on his death day, October 3. 

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Franciscan spirituality in Protestantism refers to spirituality in Protestantism inspired by the Catholic friar Saint Francis of Assisi. Emerging since the 19th century, there are several Protestant adherent and groups, sometimes organised as religious orders, which strives to adhere to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of Saint Francis of Assisi.

The 20th century High Church Movement gave birth to Franciscan inspired orders among revival of religious orders in Protestant Christianity.

One of the results of the Oxford Movement in the Anglican Church during the 19th century was the re-establishment of religious orders, including some of Franciscan inspiration. The principal Anglican communities in the Franciscan tradition are the Community of St. Francis (women, founded 1905), the Poor Clares of Reparation (P.C.R.), the Society of Saint Francis (men, founded 1934), and the Community of St. Clare (women, enclosed). There is also a Third Order known as the Third Order Society of St Francis (T.S.S.F.).

A U.S.-founded order within the Anglican world communion is the Seattle-founded Order of Saint Francis[1] (OSF) an open, inclusive, and contemporary expression of an Anglican First Order of Friars. There is also an order of Clares in Seattle (Diocese of Olympia) The Little Sisters of St. Clare,[2] where the OSF is officially headquartered.

There are also some small Franciscan communities within European Protestantism and the Old Catholic Church.[3] There are some Franciscan orders in Lutheran Churches, including the Order of Lutheran Franciscans, the Evangelical Sisterhood of Mary, and the Evangelische Kanaan Franziskus-Bruderschaft (Kanaan Franciscan Brothers). In addition, there are associations of Franciscan inspiration not connected with a mainstream Christian tradition and describing themselves as ecumenical or dispersed.

Both the Anglicans and also the Lutheran Church has third orders in emulation of the Catholic ones. The Anglicans has a "Third Order of Saint Francis (TSSF)", with the same name as the Catholic third order, the Third Order of Saint Francis, and the Lutherans has a Order of Lutheran Franciscans.[citation needed]

Contents [show]

Anglican Communion [edit]

One of the results of the Oxford Movement in the Anglican Church during the 19th century was the re-establishment of religious orders, including some of Franciscan inspiration. The principal Anglican communities in the Franciscan tradition are the Community of St. Francis (women, founded 1905), the Poor Clares of Reparation (P.C.R.), the Society of Saint Francis (men, founded 1934), and the Community of St. Clare (women, enclosed). There is also a Third Order known as the Third Order Society of St Francis (T.S.S.F.).

A U.S.-founded order within the Anglican world communion is the Seattle-founded Order of Saint Francis[4] (OSF) an open, inclusive, and contemporary expression of an Anglican First Order of Friars. There is also an order of Clares in Seattle (Diocese of Olympia) The Little Sisters of St. Clare,[5] where the OSF is officially headquartered.

Another officially sanctioned Anglican order with a more contemplative focus is the order of the Little Brothers of Francis in the Anglican Church of Australia.[6]

The Company of Jesus Community, of both Franciscan and Benedictine inspiration, is under the episcopal oversight of a bishop of the Episcopal Church (United States), but accepts any baptized Christians as members.[7]

Society of St Francis [edit]

The main manifestation of the Franciscan life within the Anglican Communion is the Society of St Francis. It is fully recognised as part of the Anglican Communion and has around 3,000 members in its constituent orders. The society is made up of several distinct orders: the brothers of the First Order (Society of St Francis, SSF); the sisters of the First Order (Community of St Francis, CSF); the Sisters of the Second Order (Community of St Clare, OSC); the brothers and sisters of the Third Order (Third Order of St Francis, TSSF).[8]

Francis of Assisi and Clare of Assisi, the founders of the Franciscan movement, produced separate rules for three parallel orders - the First Order were to be mendicant friars, embracing poverty as a gift from God and living community life in the world by serving the poor. The Second Order were to be a parallel community of sisters living a more enclosed life of prayer and contemplation. The Third Order was to consist of brothers and sisters not living in community, nor under full monastic vows, but nevertheless taking simple promises and following a rule of life in the world. These three orders still co-exist as parts of the Franciscan family in Anglicanism as well as in other Christian denominations. Francis also wrote a rule for those wishing to follow the contemplative life (in the style of the Second Order), but living alone as Christian hermits.

The Society of St. Francis includes an order of tertiaries, people who have taken promises and are followers of a version of the Franciscan Rule but do not live together in community.[9][10] This Third Order (T.S.S.F.) was founded in 1950. The T.S.S.F. consists of men and women, lay and ordained, married and single. It is divided into five provinces: Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Europe, and the Americas.[citation needed]

The Franciscan Order of the Divine Mercy,(FODM}. Based in the United States of America. They live in harmony within the Orthodox Anglo-Catholic Church and invite other Christian faiths to follow an Ecumenical Christian path. They are a Third Order society of Men and Women who live out of community.

First Order[edit]

Main articles: Society of St Francis and Community of St Francis

First Order Franciscans live in community under traditional vows of poverty, chastity and obedience. In the Anglican Communion the male first order is known as the Society of St Francis, and brothers have the initials 'SSF' after their name; the female first order is known as the Community of St Francis, and sisters have the initials 'CSF' after their name. The First Order brothers and sisters operate worldwide, dividing themselves into internal provinces, and have around 200 members.

Second Order[edit]

Main article: Community of St. Clare

Second Order Franciscans live in enclosed community, taking the same traditional vows but following a version of the Rule of St Francis modified to reflect a more contemplative lifestyle. Second Order sisters are often known as "Poor Clares", though they should properly be known as the Order of St Clare or the Community of St Clare. The sisters have the initials "OSC" after their names. They are the smallest part of the Franciscan family and are currently active only in the United Kingdom at St Mary's Convent, Freeland, Oxfordshire. The sisters believe that their "enclosed" life does not mean being "shut in", but rather an opportunity to live and work together on one site in real community.[11] The former second order convent in New York, opened in 1922, closed in 2003 following the death of the last sister of the Poor Clares of Reparation and Adoration (OSC).

Third Order[edit]

A Third Order of Saint Francis (TSSF), with the same name as the Catholic third order, exists in the Anglican Communion, alongside the Anglican Society of St Francis and Community of St Francis (First Order Franciscans), and the Community of St. Clare (Anglican Second Order of Franciscan Sisters) [citation needed].

Third Order Franciscans live as a dispersed community, which means that they meet together regularly for prayer, study, and fellowship, but live individually on a day-to-day basis. Some live alone, others as part of a family. Members may be single or married, ordained or lay, and male or female. They do not take the traditional three-fold vow of poverty, chastity, and obedience, but they do enter into a binding promise and live by a rule of life based upon Francis of Assisi's original Third Order rule.

Other Franciscan orders [edit]

Whilst the Society of St Francis (First, Second and Third Orders), operating worldwide, is widely recognised as the principal branch of Francsicanism within the Anglican Communion, there are other religious orders following the Franciscan rule, and living the Franciscan life. Those that are officially recognised as part of the Anglican Communion include the following:

First Order

The Korean Franciscan Brotherhood (KFB) is a First Order male community in formation in Korea, with assistance from the Society of St Francis. An SSF brother has headed the KFB since its formation in 1994, and by an agreement reached in 2001 will continue to support KFB in achieving full independence as an order.[12] The brothers are building friaries and a retreat centre. [1]

The Sisters of St Francis (SSF) is a Korean community of First Order sisters living in a convent at Cheongwon County, Korea. The sisters engage in community work and parish work within the Anglican Church of Korea.

The Order of St Francis (OSF) is an international dispersed community of men. Unique amongst First Order Franciscans, married men may be admitted to membership; this has necessitated changes to the traditional vows, particularly those of chastity and poverty. The vows are still taken, but with a broader interpretation.

The Society of the Franciscan Servants of Jesus and Mary (FSJM) is a community of women founded in 1935, and living in a convent at Posbury in Devon. The sisters accept guests for retreats and also have a small retreat cottage which is sometimes available for guests. The community is small in number, and has ceased much of its active community work.

The Daughters of St Francis is a community of women following the Franciscan rule in Korea. [13]

The Order of St Elizabeth of Hungary was an early experiment in Franciscan First Order life for women, founded during the First World War and named after the Franciscan divine Elizabeth of Thuringia. Operating extensively in England and Australia, the society declined rapidly in the 1980s and closed in the 1990s.

Second Order and hermitage

The Little Brothers of Francis (LBF) is a small Australian community of men, whose three founders were First Order brothers (SSF) who felt called to a more individual and contemplative life. They live according to the Rule of St Francis for Hermitages, and thus bring a further dimension to the Franciscan family within Anglicanism.

The Little Sisters of Saint Clare (LSSC) is a fresh expression of the Second Order rule founded in 2002. The sisters wear traditional habit and follow the contemplative life, but they currently live as a dispersed community (though with regular Chapter meetings) pending the funds to establish a physical convent.

The Society of Our Lady of the Isles (SOLI) is a contemplative community living on Fetlar, an island in Shetland (Scotland), according to a hybrid rule derived from a blending of the Franciscan Second Order rule and the Cistercian rule. Oblate sisters live enclosed within the community, whilst fully professed sisters live as solitary sisters, engaging with community activities at prescribed times.

Third Order

The Company of Jesus is an unusual order in two respects. Firstly, it is a deliberate mix of the Franciscan and Benedictine rules, forming a "hybrid" community. Secondly, although it is a Third Order movement, it bears many of the characters of the First Order. The members spend large amounts of time in community in traditional habit and the order maintains a residential monastery (Livingstone Monastery in Virginia) where members may live the monastic life, despite their Third Order status.

Lutheranism [edit]

The Order of Lutheran Franciscans is an order within the Lutheran Tradition.

In the Evangelical Church in Germany, apart from the high church movement, there exists a Protestant Evangelische Kanaan Franziskus-Bruderschaft (Kanaan Franciscan Brothers), affiliated with Evangelical Sisterhood of Mary.

In Church of Sweden, there is Helige Franciskus Systraskap (Sisterhood of Saint Francis), a religious community in Klaradal convent in Sjövik.

Franciscan Brothers of St. Michael (FBSM), also in North America, within Evangelical Marian Catholic Church, is a Congregation of men, women and children. are now part of the American Orthodox Catholic Church Inc.

In the Lutheran church, there has been also more general interest to Franciscan spirituality. E.g. "Assisi-Kredsen" in Denmark and "Franciskus-Sällskapet i Finland" are ecumenical societies, which e.g. arrange journeys to Assisi and in Franciscan convents. Members are mostly Lutherans.

Lutheran third orders [edit]

The Order of Lutheran Franciscans is an "undifferentiated" Order in the tradition of the Third Order of Saint Francis. Life-professed women and men, lay or ordained, make Vows of Poverty, Chastity and Obedience. [14]

In Europe, there are nine Franciscan third orders, two of which are commonly referenced.

Evangelische Franziskaner-Tertiaren (Lutheran Franciscan Tertiaries, officially "Evangelische Franziskanerbruderschaft der Nachfolge Christi") was founded in Germany 1927 within Hochkirchliche Vereinigung.

Franciskus Tredje Orden, FTO in Church of Sweden, is part of the European Province of the Third Order of the Anglican Society of St Francis. Stockholm based pastor Ted Harris is a well established member and contact man for Franciskus Tredje Orden.[15][16]

Ecumenical organisations[edit]

In addition, there are associations of Franciscan inspiration not connected with a mainstream Christian tradition and describing themselves as ecumenical or dispersed.

The Free Episcopal Church in the USA sponsors the Order of Servant Franciscans, whose members are committed to "the process of becoming" ministers of Christ's message of reconciliation and love, as demonstrated by the holy lives of Saints Francis and Clare.[17][18]

The Mission Episcopate of Saints Francis and Clare, "an autocephalous (self-governing) ecclesial jurisdiction", sponsors the Order of Lesser Sisters and Brothers,[19] open to Christians male or female, married, partnered or single, clergy or lay.[20] The Australian Ecumenical Franciscan Order[21] is now an independent community in which most members live their everyday life in the world. They may be male or female, married, partnered or single, clergy or lay. They may belong to any Christian tradition. There is no discrimination of any sort, save as to minimum age.

The Companions of Jesus,[22] founded in the United Kingdom in 2004, is "a Franciscan Community of Reconciliation".

The United States Order of Ecumenical Franciscans adopted its Rule on 22 November 1983.[23] The Order of Lesser Sisters and Brothers[24] is a dispersed ecumenical Franciscan community similar to the older Third Order model under which most members live their everyday life in the world. They may be male or female, married, partnered or single, clergy or lay. There is no discrimination of any sort, save as to minimum age.

The Ecumenical Franciscan Society from Eastern Europe has Lutheran, Catholic, Orthodox, Anglican and free Protestant members.[citation needed]

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Papal name. 

On 13 March 2013, upon his election as Pope, Archbishop and Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio of Argentina chose Francis as his papal name in honor of Saint Francis of Assisi, becoming Pope Francis. 

At his first audience on 16 March 2013, Pope Francis told journalists that he had chosen the name in honor of Saint Francis of Assisi, and had done so because he was especially concerned for the well-being of the poor.  He explained that, as it was becoming clear during the conclave voting that he would be elected the new bishop of Rome, the Brazilian Cardinal Cláudio Hummes had embraced him and whispered, “Don't forget the poor”, which had made Bergoglio think of the saint.  Bergoglio had previously expressed his admiration for St. Francis, explaining that “He brought to Christianity an idea of poverty against the luxury, pride, vanity of the civil and ecclesiastical powers of the time.  He changed history.” Bergoglio's selection of his papal name is the first time that a pope has been named Francis.  

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